وضعیت آلودگی یک زمین کشاورزی به برخی فلزات سنگین در حاشیه بزرگراه اراک-قم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا

2 استادیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا

10.22092/ijsr.2019.127315.467

چکیده

در این پژوهش وضعیت آلودگی و توزیع فلزات سنگین نیکل (Ni)، کادمیم (Cd)، سرب (Pb) و روی (Zn) در خاک حاشیه بزرگراه اراک-قم تحت کشت یونجه بررسی شد. نمونه­های خاک با فواصل 0، 50، 100، 150، 200، 250 و 300 متر از کنار جاده از دو لایه صفر تا 10 و 10 تا 20 سانتی­متر برداشت شدند. غلظت کل و قابل جذب فلزات سنگین در خاک به عنوان تابعی از فاصله از جاده و عمق خاک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش فاصله از جاده غلظت کل و قابل جذب فلزات سنگین کاهش معنی­داری داشت که نشان­ می­دهد غلظت فلزات سنگین در خاک سطحی شدیداً تحت تأثیر حجم ترافیک می­باشد. همچنین مقدار ماده آلی و پ-اچ (pH) خاک با فاصله از جاده کاهش یافت که می­تواند به سبب حضور گیاهان در سطح و تجمع مواد آلی شامل کاغذ، پلاستیک و هیدروکربن­ها (زباله­های دورریخته شده از خودروها) در مسیر جاده باشد. غلظت فلزات سنگین اندازه­گیری شده فراتر از مقدار استاندارد آن­ها (FAO/WHO) در خاک­ها بوده و در عمق صفر تا 10 سانتی­متر بیشتر از عمق 10 تا 20 سانتی­متر مشاهده گردید.  مقدار متوسط غلظت کل فلزات Ni (60/109)، Cd (11/47)، Pb (41/553) و Zn (95/241) بر حسب میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم به ترتیب Pb> Zn> Ni> Cd تغییر یافت. همچنین خاک منطقه مورد مطالعه از نظر شاخص­های زمین­انباشت و ضریب آلودگی برای عناصر Ni، Cd و Pb دارای آلودگی شدید بود، به طوری­که شاخص زمین­انباشت برای Ni، Cd و Pb به ترتیب برابر با 75/6، 71/6 و 21/4 و شاخص ضریب آلودگی آن­ها به ترتیب برابر با 18/161، 02/157 و 67/27 بود، که نشان می­دهد باید دقت زیادی بر میزان فلزات سنگین در خاک­های کنار جاده انجام شود، چرا که این خاک­ها اغلب تحت کشت گیاهان خوراکی هستند. در یونجه، تجمع بالای فلزات سنگین مشاهده شد و همچنین جذب و ذخیره آن­ها در اندام هوایی بیشتر از ریشه بود. مقادیر میانگین Ni، Cd، Pb و Zn به ترتیب برابر با 44/29، 64/15، 79/5 و 50/10 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم در ریشه و 98/47، 77/19، 14/7 و 53/13 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم در اندام­های هوایی بود. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد که لازم است مطالعات پیوسته و بیشتری در زمینه تجمع فلزات سنگین و ارزیابی خطرات اکولوژیکی برای حفاظت و مدیریت بهتر مناطق شهری و دیگر اقدامات محیط زیستی انجام گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pollution Status of Some Heavy Metals in an Agricultural Land Along Arak-Qom Highway

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shabnam Khaleghi 1
  • A. Safadoust 2
  • Zahra Kolahchi 2
1 MSc. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan
2 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan
چکیده [English]

In this study, the pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals of Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn was investigated along the Arak-Qom highway in an agricultural field under alfalfa. Soil samples from depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm were collected perpendicular to the road at the distances of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 m. The content of the total and available levels of these heavy metals was investigated as a function of distance from the road and soil depth. Results showed that the total and available concentration of heavy metals decreased by increasing distance from the road, indicating that accumulation of heavy metals in top soils was greatly influenced by traffic. Also, organic matter content and pH decreased with distance from the roadway, probably due to the presence of vegetation on the surface and accumulation of organic matter including debris such as paper, plastic and hydrocarbons (garbage out of vehicles). The concentration of measured heavy metals were higher than standard (FAO/WHO) and in layer of 0-10 cm were higher than 10-20 cm. The mean total concentration of heavy metals of Ni (109.60), Cd (47.11), Pb (553.41) and Zn (241.95) all in mg kg-1 followed the order of Pb> Zn> Ni> Cd. In terms of geo-accumulation index and contamination factor for Ni, Cd and Pb, the soil showed high levels of contamination, as the geo-accumulation index for Ni, Cd and Pb were 6.75, 6.71 and 4.21, and the contamination factors were 161.18, 157.02 and 27.67, respectively,which suggests care must be taken to control the level of heavy metals concentration on roadside soils as these soils are often cultivated to produce food crops.High accumulations of heavy metals were usually found on alfalfa and accumulation of the heavy metals was higher in shoot than root. Median values of Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn were 29.44, 15.64, 5.79 and 10.50 mg kg-1 for root and 47.98, 19.77, 7.14 and 13.53 mg kg-1 for shoot, respectively. Results show that it is necessary to have continuous studies on the accumulation of heavy metals and the potential ecological risk assessment to ensure effective protection and management of urban soil and other environmental media.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Traffic pollution
  • Geo-accumulation index
  • Contamination factor
  • Alfalfa
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