تأثیر گچ، کربن آلی و مدت زمان خوابانیدن بر برخی ویژگی‌های یک خاک سدیمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان

3 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

خاک­های سدیمی به طور وسیعی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک گسترش یافته­اند. برای اینکه اراضی سدیمی بتوانند مورد استفاده کشاورزی قرار بگیرند باید ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی نامطلوب آن‌ها اصلاح گردد. به منظور بررسی اثر گچ (صفر، 50 و 100 درصد نیاز گچی) به تنهایی و توأم با کاربرد مواد آلی از منابع مختلف (بدون بقایا، بقایای گیاه یونجه، ضایعات میوه خرما، بقایای گیاه ذرت و خاک اره) به میزان 5/1 و 3 درصد کربن آلی بر ویژگی­های یک خاک سدیمی، یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 27 تیمار و 3 تکرار به اجرا درآمد. پس از اعمال تیمارها، هر 15روز یکبار به مدت دو ماه درصد سدیم تبادلی، نسبت جذب سدیم، pH، رس قابل انتشار اندازه­گیری شد.سپس در پایان زمان خوابانیدن، خاک مورد آبشویی گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش زمان خوابانیدن ویژگی­های شیمیایی خاک بهبود یافت. قبل از آبشویی تیمار گچ به میزان 100 درصد نیاز گچی و بدون کربن آلی مصرفی دارای بیشترین تأثیر در کاهش نسبت جذب سدیم، درصد سدیم تبادلی و رس قابل انتشار بود. بیشترین مقدار تنفس میکروبی نیز از مصرف 3 درصد کربن آلی از منبع ضایعات میوه خرما بدون گچ مصرفی حاصل شد. مواد آلی قبل از آبشویی باعت ایجاد ویژگی­های شیمیایی نامناسباز قبیل افزایش درصد سدیم تبادلی، نسبت جذب سدیم، و رس قابل انتشار در خاک سدیمی شد. پس از آبشویی، در همه تیمارها، pH، نسبت جذب سدیم، درصد سدیم تبادلی و رس قابل انتشار و هدایت هیدرولیکی کاهش یافت.تیمار3 درصد کربن آلی از منبع ضایعات میوه خرما به همراه گچ به مقدار 100 درصد نیازگچی مؤثرترین تیمار برای اصلاح خاک سدیمی مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش بود. مواد آلی و گچ زمانی بیشترین تأثیر را در اصلاح خاک سدیمی داشتند که پس از خوابانیدن خاک به مدت 2 ماه، آبشویی صورت گرفت. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Incubation Times, Gypsum, Organic Carbon, and Leaching on Some Properties of a Sodic Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Vafaee 1
  • A. Golchin 2
  • S. Shafiei 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft
چکیده [English]

Sodic soils are widely spread in arid and semiarid regions. To use sodic soils for crop production, reclamation of physico-chemical properties of these soils is necessary. To study the effects of different levels of gypsum (0, 50 and 100% of gypsum requirement) alone and with three levels of organic carbon (0, 1.5 and 3% w/w) from different sources (alfalfa and corn residue, saw dust and date fruit waste) on some properties of a sodic soil, a factorial experiment was conducted with 27 treatments and three replications using a completely randomized design. After application of gypsum or gypsum+ organic matter to the sodic soil, the physic-chemical properties of it were measured every 15 days. The studied soil was leached at the end of the incubation time. The results showed that the physicochemical characteristics of the sodic soil improved with the increase in incubation time. Before performing leaching treatment, the application of gypsum equal to gypsum requirement had the greatest impact on decreasing SAR, ESP, and dispersible clay (DC). Maximum microbial respiration rate was obtained from the application of 3% organic carbon from date fruit waste. The application of organic materials + gypsum had the greatest impact on improvement of sodic soil behaviors after leaching. The addition of organic matter caused some characteristics of sodic soil to become undesirable before leaching. After leaching, pH, SAR, ESP, DC and hydraulic conductivity (HC) decreased in all treatments. The treatment of gypsum at the rate of 100% gypsum requirement + 3% organic carbon from date fruit waste was the most effective reclamation treatment for the sodic soil. The organic materials + gypsum had the maximum reclamation effect on sodic soils, when the soils had been leached two months after incubation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dispersible clay
  • Exchangeable sodium percentage
  • Salt leaching
  • Microbial respiration
  • Organic waste
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