اثر بیوچار و بقایای پوسته برنج و کاربرد اوره بر رشد، ترکیب شیمیایی و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن اسفناج در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشیار علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

استفاده از کود­های نیتروژن در خاک اقدامی مؤثر برای بهبود عملکرد محصول به شمار می­رود، اما کاربرد غیر اصولی آن می تواند منتج به هدررفت نیتروژن شود که هم از نظر اقتصادی و هم از نظر آلودگی محیط زیست حائز اهمیت است. بنابراین یکی از دغدغه های اصلی یافتن روش­هایی برای استفاده مؤثر از کود­های نیتروژن است. تحقیقات در خصوص اثرات کاربرد همزمان بیوچار، بقایا و کود نیتروژن بر رشد و ترکیبات شیمیایی گیاهان و به ویژه کارایی استفاده از نیتروژن در خاک­های آهکی بسیار محدود است. درمطالعه حاضر یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با فاکتور اوره در سه سطح (0، 100 و 200 میلی­گرم نیتروژن بر کیلوگرم خاک)، فاکتور بیوچار/ بقایا در 4 سطح (0، 2% بیوچار، 2% بقایای گیاهی و 2% بیوچار + بقایای گیاهی) با سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان دادکه بیوچار و بقایای گیاهی اثر مثبتی بر کارایی استفاده از نیتروژن بؤیژه در سطح 100 میلی­گرم نیتروژن در کیلوگرم خاک دارند. بیوچار غلظت و جذب نیتروژن و فسفر گیاه را نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد اما بر جذب آهن، منگنز، مس و روی اثر
معنی
­داری نداشت. همچنین نتایج بیانگر آن است که کاربرد همزمان بیوچارو بقایا با اوره به طور معنی­داری وزن تر و وزن خشک گیاه اسفناج را افزایش می­دهد. نظر به اینکهکاربرد بقایا و بیوچاراثرات مطلوبی بر پاسخ­های گیاهی و همچنین بهبود کارایی مصرف نیتروژن داشته، شایسته است در برنامه­ریزی توصیه کودی مزارع به استفاده از چنین موادی توجه بیشتری شود. البته لازم است به منظور تایید نتایج آزمایش حاضر و قبل از هر گونه توصیه­ای بررسی­های کافی در شرایط مزرعه نیز انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Crop Residues, Rice Husk Biochar, and Urea Application on Growth, Chemical Composition, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Spinach in a Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Zibaei 1
  • R. Ghasemi-Fasaei 2
  • P. Ostovar 1
1 PhD student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Application of N fertilizer to soil is known as an effective practice for crop yield improvement, but its inappropriate use could result in N loss, which is important from both environmental pollution and economic feasibility standpoints. Therefore, one of the great concerns lies in finding suitable methods for effective use of N fertilizers. Research on the effects of simultaneous application of biochar, resides, and nitrogen fertilizer on plants growth and chemical composition, especially N use efficiency (NUE), is very limited. In this study, an experiment was designed according to a completely randomized factorial design, in which the treatments consisted of three levels of urea (0, 100 and 200 mg N kg-1) and four levels of biochar/residue (0, 2% biochar, 2% crop residue, and 2% biochar+crop residue) with three replication. Biochar increased the uptake and concentration of N and P in spinach shoots as compared to the control, but had not effects on the uptake of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. Results indicated that biochar and crop residue had a positive effect on N use efficiency, especially at 100 mg kg-1 level of urea. Results also showed that co-application of biochar and residues with urea significantly improved plant wet and dry matter yield. Due to the desirable effects of biochar and residues application on plant responses and improving nitrogen use efficiency, more attention should be paid to the use of such materials in fertilizer recommendation programs. Before making recommendations, further investigations under field conditions are crucial to verify the results of the present study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • N uptake
  • Co-application of biochar and residues
  • N fertilizer
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